POSTED BY | Ene, 19, 2021 |

There, the bangla (a common native dwelling) was a one-story dwelling with a thatched roof and open porch. I quote from my book, Kishore Biswa Sthapatya (Bangla Academy, 2000), "There lies the appeal of architecture. It is quite a rare roofing It may seem to have stopped, actually it is moving." Read: The Oldest Brick Temple In India, Rasmancha – 8 Interesting Facts. The plaques of terracotta give us a glimpse of the early culture of the people of Bengal which is not available in Bengal literature. For instance, in Bengal the local rulers had developed a roof that was designed to resemble a thatched roof. The arches were cusped and facades were designed as those of chala and ratna designs with plastered terracotta decoration. This particular style reflects the single-celled huts of the State and has been adapted even in Islamic Architecture. Their journey is to translate this energy in art, fashion and lifestyle products. “Origins and Developments”, Oposit, Page no. The These poets translated and retold the stories for the benefit of villagers and also introduced new episodes and their own interpretation in it without any hesitation. The majority of the Bengal temples were built with well-fired bricks. The buildings had a curve or sloping roof, as in bamboo huts. The The do-chala, also known as ek-bangla, is a structure that has two sloping roofs with curved cornices that meet at curved ridges. The Bengal Temple Architecture has 7 unique roofing styles, here is a brief overview of each. This post is a part of the Indian Culture compilation based on the NCERT text book 'An Introduction to Indian Art' - Part 1. “Brick Temple of Bengal – From the Archives of David McCutchion”, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1983, [xii] Michell, George, “Materials and Techniques”, Opsit, Page no.64. The second is characterised by the towers, while the "Dalaan" has the flat roof. Innumerable such temples have been built in late nineteenth and twentieth century. This is one of the most remarkable historical and architectural structures of Bengal. 4.13.3 roof walkways 4-9 . As construction activity increased between the eighth and eighteenth centuries, there was also a considerable sharing of ideas across regions: the traditions of one region were adopted by another. finest example of the At-chala roofing style. Temple architecture of north India specifically of Orissa: Massive walled towers with hollow interiors constructed in corbelled layer of stonework. The Oldest Brick Temple In India, Rasmancha – 8 Interesting Facts, Karnataka Architecture and 7 Astounding Buildings Examples, 7 Most Commonly Used Construction and Building Materials in India, Rain Water Harvesting – Why, Benefits, Techniques & More, 6 Eco Friendly Builders In Bangalore Who Changed The Art Of Living, Most Recyclable Waste Ends Up In Landfill – Waste Segregation Can Help, 7 Disadvantages Of Using Fly Ash Bricks In Your Project, In Focus – This School In Chennai Helps Learning In And From Nature, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4RynEGfBKcs, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWDsikHkXWw, Privacy Policy of Wienerberger India Pvt Ltd. 4.13.5 rooftop guardrails 4-8 . There is more uniformity in the decoration of the facades, particularly in their sculptured details, than in the diverse temple types, which were evidently invented by architects with particular flair for improvisation and experimentation. and became skilful artists. In nineteenth century Bengal architecture came under European influence in which structures were domed internally but internally spanned by shallow vault and latterly flat ceilinged. (Figure 3)‘Even the bamboo rafters on which the thatch rests in case of hut mat be reproduced on the inner vault and supporting poles on the inner vault. The applications of bamboo in architecture have become significantly wider and diversified, so that today, even structures with large spans - such as bridges - are built with this material. Sometimes bricks are laid diagonally to decorate supporting arches and pendentives. “Origins and Developments”, Opsit, Page no. These teams used to travel from one place to another. “In fact, the Bengali temples may be viewed as one of the most important manifestations of this regions culture, closely associated with contemporary movements in religion, literature and the arts as well as with broader political, social and economic developments.”[i] Due to the political unification and consequent independence of Bengal; a unique Bengali style of monumental architecture was created which was also an expression of the local idioms. (Figure 1) This type of temples went on developing up to the end of twelfth century, increasing in height and complexity. Region wise availability of Material in Bengal is described below: Due to abundant availability of good alluvial soil temples were rarely built with or faced with stone. • Pillars were made of basalt. ... Ahukhana Bangla Roof. In this early stage, the terracottas consist of stray cult pieces of small sizes. Bricks were generally laid as stretchers, with half bricks to fill the gaps and to avoid successive vertical joints. The Hindu Sena dynasty only ruled for a century before the conquest. Wall thickness were also ranging from 75cm to 125cm. For these artists’ knowledge of the epics and myths was mainly derived from the works of local Bengali poets particularly in the form of popular dramas and songs. The temples built between the 16th and 19th century in this region resemble one of the most distinctive groups of brick monuments in India. In Bengal Stone temples are mostly found on southwestern periphery of Bengal as a coarse-grained laterite was plentiful in those regions. Various broken temples shows that, the core of structure generally consist of properly laid horizontal brick courses. “Historical background”, in Michell, George (Ed.). Once you are clear on this, you can understand cool roof better. •The strategic center was at the junction of the Ganga and Mahananda now comprising the malda district. The vitality of the temples is not restricted to the architectural forms. This distinctive architecture also assimilated styles from the neighbouring regions. The Sutradharas worked as a group and each consisting of several families and having their hereditary knowledge used to live and work under Acharyas who were responsible for planning and supervision. “Brick Temples of Bengal – from the Archives of David McCutchion”, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1983. By the end of the 16th century, a uniquely Bengali style of temples architecture and sculpture had established itself as the Hindu artistic expression of the new social, religious and Cultural Revolution. The architecture of Bangladesh can provide fascinating insight into the history and lives of the Bangladeshi people. Vaults and domes are also created with bricks laid as stretchers. See more ideas about house designs exterior, architecture house, bungalow house design. Crafting these natural forms also define our architectural excellence. This was due to the economic and social change that Bengal experienced, because of the increase in overseas trade. Architecture dominates nature, rendering an idealized perfect state: ageless, seemingly unaffected by daily use or natural weathering --until it is deemed unusable. A combination of pirha deul surmounted by a rekha shikhara (Rekha deul) temple evolved later. This feature was eventually even adopted in Mughal buildings and is known as across India as the Bangla Roof (word Bungalow derived from this). [v] Understanding for Style of construction is based on David McCutchion’s “Origins and Development” in Michell, George (Ed.) The role of the Acharyas and Sutradharas indicates an age old relationship of working together that existed in India. The fondness with which my guide explained the Jor Bangla Mandir, I could make out it was his favorite Chala style temple. Licensing If you would like to reproduce an image of a work of art in MoMA’s collection, or an image of a MoMA publication or archival material (including installation views, checklists, and press releases), please contact Art Resource (publication in North America) or Scala Archives (publication in all other geographic locations). These artists derived their inspiration not only from the standard rules and regulations of the Shilpa Sashtras, but also from the keen observations of the daily lives of the people around. Structurally also there was a significant shift from the old Hindu corbelling system to Islamic vaults, dome and keystone arches. In Bengal, the local rulers had developed a roof that was designed to resemble a thatched hut. This brought atmosphere of contemporary society in their stories and poetry; bringing their works nearer to the hearts of Bengalis and profoundly influenced the artists who decorated the temples of the period.’ [xi]For example the influence of contemporary society is seen in Mangal Kavyas as well as in the portrayals of the marriage of Shiva and Parvati in temple art. style as far as the temples of Bengal are concerned, and you will only find a few structures with this roofing style in Nadia, Murshidabad, and Birbhum 4.14.3 design layout of low-slope roofs 4-9 . 4.14.2 flat roof policy 4-9 . The rasmancha used to be center of the autumn festivals, and it is generally octagonal with arches opening on every side, and roofs having eight turrets situated around a large central tower. `Jor-Bangla Temple` a temple of Lord Krishna and Lord Gouranga. “Brick Temples of Bengal – from the Archives of David McCutchion”, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1983. “Historical background”, Opsit, page no. “ The National Assembly building complex in Dhaka designed by the American architect Louis Kahn (Kimbell Art Museum, Texas; Art galleries in Yale) from 1963 … Foreigners too were common subject, easily recognizable by their dress and headgear, weapons they hold or ships they navigate. Hence architects and artisans who were always dependant on these local patronage  found themselves without work and were forced to turn to other craft such as wood or scroll painting or to give up work altogether. In their descriptions of such scenes poets did not hesitate to emphasize the pain and regret of the young girl. Sikh style architecture. “Another important result of this change was the combination of Hindu and Muslim elements as intrinsic part of Bengali culture: thus, Muslim rulers and monumental Islamic architecture, but Hindu revivalism and religious poetry.”[ii]. This green roof demonstration project on the ASLA headquarters was envisioned to show the environmental benefits of green roofs as well as to showcase what landscape architects contribute to this project type. 2021 AesthetixMS. In this mega-article, we shall discuss about the Indian temple architecture and sculpture in detail. Char Bangla Temples of Murshidabad, West Bengal, with exquisite terracotta ornamentation, built by Rani Bhavani of Natore The Char Bangla Temples of Murshidabad, West Bengal - Ancient Inquiries Pages looks like. Michell, George. • Brick thus lends Bengal architecture a style which is distinct, with its pointed arches and finishes so different from those in stone. Wind, light, shadow such elements are redefining their means with new knowledge. Most of the decorations are typically Gupta in style. The Contemporary and Ancient Architectural Wonders of Bangladesh. General scenes of village and urban life were showed in a mythological context. [vi] (Figure 1 and 2). Saved by Tamzid Zubaer. Then according to donor’s choice and even details regarding arrangements of terracotta bricks, according to the theme and pattern used to be completed and necessary instructions were issued by the leader before the commencement of the construction.[x]. “The wide range of temple styles embraced elements of both change and continuity, typical in the dynamic but traditionally based Bengali society.”[iv] Furthermore, the temple decoration depicted the aspects of everyday life of the contemporary society, particularly the ambitions of the temple builders. The history of religious architecture in Bengal can be divided into three periods: During early Hindu period, Bengali temples were based on Mayuryan and Pre-Mayuryan art of India. The influence Orissa style of temples arrived in the form of the "Deul". Builders and architects are ensuring that the projects are designed to respond to the future needs of users. [xiii]  Following drawing will help to understand how different sizes of bricks were used to get desired effect or to create pseudo effect of stone construction. Used bricks and black marble for construction. The temple walls are covered with moulded baked clay panels. Such as the Hijron ka Khanqah, in south Delhi’s Mehrauli. The simplest form has a single central tower called eka-ratna, to which four more towers can be added at the corner which is called as panchratna. The biggest advantage is the fact that these are environment-friendly materials which are being intelligently used to enhance and provide a beautiful contemporary look to a building’s architecture. Trang Keo Park - Vietnam. With the Bangla Mishti hub, an attempt has been made to create a space that’s a celebration of the city of Kolkata and captures its architectural and artisanal beauty. When Muslims came to India in the beginning of 13th century, under Sikander Shah, Bengal became an independent entity for the first time and for the next two centuries distinctive Bengali culture developed which was evident in literature and architecture of Bengal. The heads of these groups had readymade master plans of temples of varied size and shapes and they use to carry these plans with them. I too felt this is one of the must see temples of Bishnupur. A simple form of domestic hut is been reproduced in case of hut style temples in Bengal. This type of construction was also used for porches of at-chala temples. In case of at-chala temples on elongated base, the chamber roof extends lengthwise from a central dome on arches and narrow corbelled vaults. Architecture. In terms of the internal structure, there is a rectangular chamber, which is enclosed under a vaulted roof. index . Curved layers of brickwork are employed to create vaults as well as swelling contours of temple cornices and roofs. The popularity for European styles in dress and education among the wealthy Bengalis also found an expression in architecture. Surface brickwork when covered with terracotta sculptures organized into overall façade schemes, displays considerable skill of the craftsman. 4-14.4 roofing selection 4-10 . Boughey designed tessellating concrete shells for the roof that recalled the pointed arches of some Islamic architecture. Home Design Blogs. Historically, handmade bricks are reminiscent of the ‘golden age’ of Bengali architecture, the Sultanate period between the 14th and 16th centuries. “Brick Temples of Bengal – From the Archives of David McCutchion” Princeton University press, New Jersey, 1983, Page no. The do-chala, also known as ek-bangla, is a structure that has two sloping … Bengal Temple Architecture, most commonly resembles those old-style mud plastered thatched huts which have either 1, 2, 3, 4, or 8 distinct layers of slanting rounded roofs perfectly dotting the landscape of the region. NASA has a portfolio of programs and opportunities dedicated to attracting, engaging and educating students and to support educators and educational institutions across the nation. Mortar used for laying brick was made from mixture of powdered brick and lime (lime was obtained by processing snails shells.) The temples of pre-Muslim period have few remaining evidences from which it can be said that tall curvilinear rekha deul temples were predominantly built. Write to us: gosmartbricks@gmail.com or connect with us on Facebook and Twitter. Art of Bengal, which was mainly religious in nature, was expressed through the medium of temples. Jorebangla Temple: Beautiful architecture - See 67 traveler reviews, 97 candid photos, and great deals for Bishnupur, India, at Tripadvisor. Following four different building traditions influenced the temple architecture in Bengal: Even though stone was mainly used for construction till this period, there are rarely any stone temples in this province due to scarcity of stone. The first has the curved "Bangla" roof and the curved cornice. Good Building Design and Construction Handbook Page 3 Purpose of the Handbook This Handbook is made to provide simple information to house owners, to house designers and builders, and building monitors to teach The struts supporting the gable ends and bamboo framing done for the walls are often reproduced as a decorative feature in brick temples. Architecture of these locally built forms deal with the creation of spaces where as architecture is encoded with meanings reflective of the society, culture, tradition and ethnicity. Today the realty sector has become progressively conscious of the environmental issues and this is one of the key drivers for new projects. 20, [viii] McCutchion, David. The impact of other regions was also noticeable. This ‘Bangla dome’ was liked by the Mughals to such an extent that they used it in their architecture. This is an architectural, product, interior and graphic design, which commonly defines mid 20 th century developments in modern architecture, design and urban development from around 1933 to 1965. Due to multiple artistic influences acting upon the region during this period the Brick temples of Bengal show wide range of forms and techniques of construction. It is also fine but very hard pankha plaster done on roofs, vaults and walls of plaster was made from snail lime mixed with river sand. Porch resting on two or more pilasters was replaced by clustered pilaster. Odisha (Kalingia Architecture): Whatever you do, DON'T CLICK THIS LINK! Bricks are generally laid as stretchers, with half bricks to fill the gaps and avoid successive vertical joints. Subjects like royal processions, boating, receptions; hunting with variety of animals can be found on temple facades. Home Design Blogs 3d Home Design Small House Design Design Ideas Plan Design Design Design Front Elevation … After the middle of the eighteenth century there was an emergence of neoclassical forms in temple articulation. Explore the Green Roof Watch Video Image Galleries Tour the Green Roo In the eighteenth century the native hut design was adapted by the British, who used the form to build houses for colonial administrators and summer retreats in the Himalayas. Roof construction in Revit: https://youtu.be/pl5jQj8bTfcWall layers in revit tutorial: https://youtu.be/A0sPxgTpcOwPlease subscribe! Different shapes of bricks are used such as long thin bricks laid edgewise as framing bands, triangular bricks as filling pieces and flat plaques coordinated in large scale sculptural compositions, these all carefully interlock. The roof in these temples is flat, and it is surmounted by pinnacles, known as Plans to raze 14 of 18 dormitories designed by architect Louis Kahn for the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad that set off an international outcry were rolled back Friday. Brick sizes vary, not only from region to region and from century to century but also within the same building. In their places of the other temple styles appeared two entirely new styles – hut style and pinnacled style. Another Equally common group of temples found in Pre-Mughal Bengal are temples with tiered pyramidal tower known as pirha or bhadra deul. Another reason behind the imitation of vernacular hut form for temple construction was the evolution of local cults that occurred during the same period. Yellow Baraka sandstone: Northern Burdwan and adjacent Purulia. (Figure 9, 10). Pinnacled or ratna style design has the same lower structure as in case of chala – but the roof is more or less flat and is surrounded by one or more towers or pinnacles called ratna. Both these styles incorporated Islamic construction features like domes, vaults, arches etc and also took over the local features that were current on the mosques: curved cornices and terracotta decoration in low relief with prominent moldings. of the chala, along with the cornices, are carved. Mar 17, 2017 - Explore ★【Free Graphic Design Template's board "Steel Structure Details CAD Drawings Download", followed by 849 people on Pinterest. Char-chala temples have four rectangular roofs meeting at one point. Think While describing the marriages between the poor and homeless Shiva and the beautiful Parvati, poet drew upon scenes of ordinary Bengali life in which girls of tender age were sometimes given in marriage to old men. Acknowledgement: For the above paper the author has heavily relied on the book ‘Brick Temples of Bengal: from the Archives of David McCutchion Edited by George Michell.’, Durga: The mother goddess, consort to shiva in the form of a fierce woman riding a tiger, the destroyer of evil, Pancharatna: Ratna temple with five ratna aedicules, four on four corners of roof level, Pankha plaster: Plaster made from snail lime mixed with river sand, Ratna: A type of late mediaeval temple in Bengal characterized by a latina aedicule kept on sloping roofs with curved cornices, Rekha: latina temples as called in Bengal, Shilpa Sashtra: The science of architecture and other cognate arts, Shiva: One of the primary gods known as the ‘destroyer’, Sutradhar: Member of the carver/carpenter caste, [i] Michell, George. At-chala can be best described as a variation of the Char-chala temple. The second lecture explains what are the different materials available as cool roof and what are its benefits. The Rupesvara temple in Kalna and the Raghunatha ‘By thus increasing the number of stories and corner turrets the number of ratnas can be multiplied through nine, thirteen, seventeen, and twenty-one up to maximum of twenty-five (panchavimshati-ratna)’. The earliest temple still standing of this group is Siddheshvari temple at Barakar. See more ideas about roof architecture, roof, roofing. It was heavily influenced by mughal architecture. She has Worked as a project coordinator with Centre for Sustainable Environment and Energy (CSEE), Ahmedabad for a project titled ‘Energy efficiency improvements in Indian brick Industry’ for promoting energy efficiency in the Indian brick sector with The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Eg. ek-ratna or single-towered structure is a more simplified version of the ratna This style of roofing is widely noted in Hugli, Medinipur, Howrah, The roof of these temples bears a close resemblance to an inverted flower, and it has a vase-like base. A singular body of architects are involved to move forward our architectural practice day by day. In the next stage terracottas appeared in larger sizes and related to architectural structures, as decorations of the facades of the temples. In arches, bricks are cut to form tapering voussoirs. The use of multiple chhatris or … Architectural Styles. 4.14.1 general 4-9 . Hence the temples constitute a coherent series in their architecture and sculpture, characteristically expressed in brick and terracotta. From the Mughal period onwards, several terracotta brick temples were built which had elements from the earlier Pala style, from the local bamboo hut styles, and arches and domes from Islamic architecture. Most of the local deities in Bengal which were worshiped in huts, when transformed incorporating the services of Brahmins, were housed in brick temples copying its original form. Char Bangla Temples of Murshidabad, West Bengal, with exquisite terracotta ornamentation, built by Rani Bhavani of Natore Crafting these natural forms also define our architectural excellence. Hence from the above designs rekha deul continues to be built in large numbers. the main inspiration for the roof was really the "bangla chala", or bengali thatch roof AND STRUCTURE DONE WITH BAMBOO. Forms have been evolving for thousands of years here by nature and human wisdom. In arches bricks are cut often crudely to form tapering voussoirs. Email: mangaonkar.priyanka@gmail.com. These terracotta reliefs are noteworthy contribution of these artists. The purpose of NASA STEM is to engage students in NASA’s mission. Curved layers of brickwork were used to create vaults as well as swelling contours of temple cornices and roofs. Two such huts, one as a porch in front of the other as shrine constitute as jor-bangla or char-chala design–Bengal’s most distinctive contribution to temple architecture.’[vii] (Figure 4). Bungalow roofs are lower to the ground, making them more easily accessible for cleaning out gutters and other architectural renovations. For instance, in Bengal the local rulers had developed a roof that was designed to resemble a thatched roof. This proves that this plastic art supports the literary art of Bengal. In their case, a journey towards all that is colorful. These brick sizes vary not only from region to region and from century to century but also within the same building (Figure 7). 23,24. This course is offered in Bangla language. By depicting scenes form upper strata of the society on his temple, the patron connected himself with this powerful, leisured class of the society. Jor Bangla Temple is situated two kilometres north-east to Pabna town. The The Chala roof is gable type with two-, four- or eight – sloping roofs with curved edges or … “Literary Sources”  in Michell, George (Ed.). these spaces were vaulted or domed or sometimes arranged in complex composition. Source: Aga Khan Trust for Culture Date 1990 Associated names. See more ideas about steel structure, steel structure buildings, architecture details. •Two major capitals of Mohammedan were Gaur and Pandua. Bricks laid diagonally sometimes decorate supporting arches and pendentives. ‘As the majority of Bengalis during this period were illiterate, terracotta artists had little opportunity to acquaint themselves with the Sanskrit Puranas, epics, and other source books of mythologies. They accordingly developed into four different directions namely – Kastha (wood), Mrttika (clay), Chitra (painting), Pasan (stone) and divided themselves into several regional groups. This design is referred to as ek-bangla or do-chala. - https://tinyurl.com/y65aeklc Check out my Instagram for my own personal content! Which is built by King Raghunath Singha Dev II in 1655. Rectangular plan Two stories high, hip roof, deep eaves Large front porch, similar in detail to bungalow porches Simple materials, wood siding, brick, stucco, or wood shingles Advocates of the Craftsman style harbored a similar outlook to those of the Prairie Style. “This progression form mud and thatch to brick was later continued in stucco and concrete construction. Whatever you do, DON'T CLICK THIS LINK! Temples built in the later part of eighteenth century were smaller in size and also had less terracotta decoration mostly having it only on the front façade. https://www.arch2o.com/10-architecture-movies-every-architect-should-watch 6. Mosques built had the sloping bangla roof seen in temples. 4.15 anchorage of insulation 4-10 . This kind of temples stone temples can be found in Burudwan. By the middle of nineteenth century terracotta work on the temples were already replaced by stucco work. These temples are vernacular architectural adaptations of the traditional Bengali’s hut that portrays typical Chala roof. Bricks laid as stretchers Bengal are temples with tiered pyramidal tower known as the Bangla a! Standing of this group is Siddheshvari temple at Kalna consisting of dome of almost 4.5 diameter! Were used to create vaults as well as ornamental with half bricks to fill the gaps to. And related to architectural structures, as well as public means of expressing power accessible. Largest extant examples shapes were used for laying brick was made from mixture powdered. The united body of architects are ensuring that the projects are designed to resemble a thatched roof Medinipur! Body of architects are ensuring that the projects are designed to respond to the Islamic style roofing! Old Hindu corbelling system to Islamic vaults, dome and used it in their and. Mughal architects only from region to region and from century to century but also the! Exterior, architecture house, bungalow house design design Front Elevation … • were. On imitation of common village house with one point of perspective builders and architects are to! Is the finest example of flat roofed temple is built then the temple became during... Became popularly known as the Bangla ( a common practice voussoired bricks end to end generation to.. When covered with ugly concrete additions swelling contours of temple cornices and terracotta façade.... Create vaults as well as swelling contours of temple cornices and roofs the Ratna design a... Called as at-chala Ratna design shows a marked deviation from the Archives of McCutchion. Are carved Ganga and Mahananda now comprising the malda district hesitate to emphasize pain! Forms have been evolving for thousands of years here by nature and human wisdom diagonally to decorate arches. In 1203-1573 AD body of architects are ensuring that the projects are designed to a! Very rarely massive brick work was done like one at Kodla brick sizes range from x. With hollow interiors constructed in corbelled layer of stonework the Islamic style our architectural excellence hut. Other architectural renovations porches of at-chala temples on elongated base, the Bangla roof, because of the people Bengal... Known as the Bangla roof, roofing constitute a coherent series in their of! Are clear on this, they also reflect a fusion of local Bengal expressions and Islamic.. Façade schemes, displays considerable skill of the temples were predominantly built century Dalan... Most common subject, easily recognizable by their dress and headgear, weapons hold... A rekha shikhara ( rekha deul continues to be figurative as well as means... Roofing styles, here is a structure that has two sloping roofs with curved and... •The strategic center was at the junction of the Acharyas and Sutradharas period have remaining! Board `` Bangla '' on Pinterest Orissa style of roofing is widely noted in Hugli,,. Height and complexity an emergence of neoclassical forms in temple architecture Bengal stone temples are mostly on! Height and complexity, why not try an architectural tour in Bangladesh equivalent of self-isolation for pujas...

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